Additionally, three respondents from state organization of social services have been recruited through personal contacts from the earlier study. Scholars argue that undocumented or legally dependent female immigrants expertise IPV in different ways from that of citizens and at a lot higher charges than in the basic populations . Similar to different battered women, feminine immigrants worry their batterers, but their anxiousness is exacerbated by their legal and political vulnerability . For instance, some undocumented immigrant women are legally dependent on an abusive spouse for access to social and health companies. Furthermore, some shelters that provide help for victims of IPV cannot settle for undocumented immigrants because of threats of losing authorities funding . Other immigration students argue that girls are most frequently concentrated in domestic work (“female jobs”) and within the lowest paid sector of employment as a result of immigrants are presumed to be deficient by way of schooling, professional status or work expertise .

Thus, within the receiving country, immigrant women can doubtlessly alleviate some of the burdens associated with their very own tradition’s conventional gender roles. In the general public sphere, Greek society has been steadily shifting in direction of gender equality, predominantly because of the rise in the stage of schooling amongst females and the overall rise in the number of women energetic within the labor market. However, in the non-public sphere, equally to Albania, Greek society continues to rely on conventional gender norms.

Women’s Rights In Albanian Politics

The emphasis on the patriarchal construction of the family, protection of the family and marriage, and maternal care for big households stay very strong in Greek society. For example, historically in Greece refusal to fulfill the male spouse’s sexual needs could be thought of a reason for divorce and carried heavy social consequences for a woman . Thus, till 2006, the legislation didn’t recognize the crime of marital rape since sexual intercourse was traditionally considered a common obligation of marriage.

As the study revealed, for Albanian immigrant women both types of patriarchy stay a problem. At the familial level, their victimization is culturally determined since Albanian tradition dictates conventional differentiated gender roles with specific or tacit approval of family violence. However, analysis has commented on how migration process has the potential to confront and transform gendered relations by altering “status and energy within or outside the family” . This is what occurred in some immigrant households the place transferring to another nation contributed to the growth of women’s expectations, elevation of their status and expansion of their selections. One would possibly doubt whether or not simultaneously working a number of troublesome jobs with meager pay could be interpreted as a pathway to an increase in autonomy and empowerment. However, gender and migration scholars have repeatedly identified that paid employment might result in an increase in self-esteem and agency and be “a new supply of energy inside their households and a foundation from which to negotiate individual identities and gender relations. It can be a supply of stress for men, especially during periods of unemployment” (, p. 129).

According to the 2001 Census the predominant area of immigrant female employment was housekeeping (fifty two%). Lazaridis in her examine of Filipino and Albanian home staff in Greece writes that prior to the 1990s migration inflow, most of domestic workers had been native Greek working class women from rural areas . Improvement in dwelling requirements and schooling levels of Greek women, coupled with the influx of migrants, led to the abandonment of this work by Greeks, who entered the labor market themselves. We try to discover this by studying migration in a border area for 2 causes. The first one is, by bringing ahead the utilization of borders as a resource in migrating household methods, we predict that the relation between particular person and family mobility becomes obvious. The second cause is that we discover interesting the ironic subversion of the affiliation of immigrants with mobility and families and nations with stasis on the place least anticipated to, at the national border. As we intent to show in our case research, to a closer inspection borderlines turn into much less stable and immigrants much less mobile.

It is necessary to level out that a spouse who had been granted a residence allow through the family reunion clause grew to become dependent on the authorized standing of his/her partner “sponsor”. In order to use for an impartial legal standing, he/she should reside in Greece for five years.


The findings of this research confirmed that intimate partner violence in opposition to Albanian immigrant women stays a critical concern in Greece. Furthermore, there is indication that the Greek financial disaster might need led to a rise in family violence, a backlash to the growing emancipation of immigrant women. However, this finding has to be interpreted with caution since it was revealed by Greek prosecutors and shelter suppliers and not by Albanian immigrant women themselves. Nevertheless, students of IPV have long insisted that this type of violence should not be studied only on the degree of individual conduct, however quite must be approached from a political-financial perspective . Shelter suppliers, social workers, attorneys and prosecutors—staff on the frontlines of gender-based mostly violence—are properly outfitted to expose how “tradition and structural inequalities shape the ways in which gender-primarily based violence is outlined and approached” (, p. eight).

Police officers have the authority to protect victims, to legally apprehend or take away offenders, and to provoke the investigation of a crime. In order to seek out justice, every sufferer of interpersonal violence must deal with the police and required authorized procedures. However, battered women, notably immigrant battered women, can be re-victimized by law enforcement officials. The majority of respondents in 2009 research claimed that battered women in Greece generally couldn’t rely on police protection. Since the Greek society views domestic violence as a non-public matter, police officers aren’t educated to reply appropriately and sufficiently, and infrequently reinforce the final patriarchal view of girls role in family and the society as whole.

The first examine carried out from September to November 2009 in Athens, Greece sought to discover whether gender performs a task in acquiring authorized standing through different migration insurance policies corresponding to regularization and household reunion. Namely, the research uncovered how the migration status of immigrant women affected their alternatives for seeking reduction from IPV. In addition, the research centered on the ways that the authorized system could be mobilized for serving to immigrant battered women and supply help and safety. Migrant women’s vulnerability to IPV can be viewed through the lens of gender and constructed gender roles that exist within the host nation and country of origin. A number of research on gender roles have emerged in the migration literature. Overall, these research give attention to how societies construct and reinforce roles for female and male immigrants and the way immigrant women reconcile the differences of their roles between the origin society and host country. For occasion, Baluja’s research discovered that the gender roles of Bangladeshi immigrants change considerably after migration .

Albanian Girls Care

In 2003, CEDAW welcomed the collaboration between government companies and NGOs engaged on house violence, but famous that the government often handed by itself obligations for shielding and fulfilling women’s human rights to each native and worldwide NGOs. The court could, for instance, require, as in Article 147, “one of many ex-spouses to compensate the other for the inequality in way of life created by the property division as part of the dissolution of the marriage, separate and apart from the duty for alimony”. However, the issue of violence in opposition to immigrant women has received comparatively little scholarly attention. For the 2013 examine, prosecutors of the First Instance Court2 in Athens and Piraeus have been contacted with the cooperation of governmental organizations providing social service to battered women. Fifteen interviews were with public prosecutors on the courts of first instance .

Immigrant families, on the one hand, stress conventional gender expectations corresponding to female childcare providers and male as family breadwinners. However, then again, these female immigrants exercise extra freedom of movement with out males than do their counterparts in Bangladesh.

The interview transcripts from each research had been analyzed by the authors based mostly on inductive coding. At the start of the coding process, each question within the interview schedule was recognized with open-coding strategies. Particular consideration was given to broad classes such as battered immigrant women, gender roles, immigrants and the job market, financial crisis and gender equality. For example, the theme of “patriarchy” included coding for the dominance of a father/husband over a household, sanctity of the family establishment in Greek society, and feedback on women occupying decrease social status than men. In addition, a second reader (the researcher’s Greek colleague) independently analyzed the transcripts to be able to set up the patterns and themes within the transcripts. Themes that emerged from the data were counted as themes if no less than half of the informants within respective teams (social employees or attorneys/prosecutors) raised the issue.

Another project, established within the Tirana suburbs of Paskuqan and Babrroi, works with migrant communities from northern Albania. It supplies social help, psychological and health firms to women and youngsters, and also will present approved recommendation – along with serving to divorced women to implement their right to baby assist ordered by the courts.

A number of studies concentrate on gender differences in job achievement in vacation spot nations and identify structural limitations in occupations for immigrants, which restrict them from using their schooling and skills . Female migrants, regardless of their degree of schooling of their country of origin, typically settle for jobs or positions under their abilities, knowledge or training levels. For instance, Campani argues that migrant women in Southern European states who entered the country for family reunion sometimes began to work within a strongly gendered labor market, which additional narrows their alternatives .